Thursday, October 11, 2018

What is the meaning behind saṅghānussati chant?

For the meaning of saṅghānussati in advance, see Part II—Concentration (Samádhi) CH. VII SIX RECOLLECTIONS Recollection of the Saṅgha page 215.

We should be used with the tree refuges according to Sutta. Ma. U. Sevitabbāsevitabbasuttaṃ:

It was said, "Sāriputta, I say, persons are also twofold those that should be used and not used" On account of what was it said by the Blessed One? Venerable sir, when using certain persons demerit increases and merit decreases, such persons should not be used, when using certain persons demerit decreases and merit increases, such persons should be used. It was said, "Sāriputta, persons too are twofold, those that should be used and not used. " It was said on account of this.

Why? Sutta. Khu. Jā.(1) Vīsatinipātajātakaṃ Sattigumbajātakaṃ:

“To whomsoever, good or bad, a man shall honour pay, Vicious or virtuous, that man holds him beneath his sway.

“Like as the comrade one admires, like as the chosen friend, Such will become the man who keeps beside him, in the end.

“Friendship makes like, and touch by touch infects, you’ll find it true: Poison the arrow, and ere long the quiver’s poisoned too.

“The wise eschews bad company, for fear of staining touch: Wrap rotten fish in grass, you’ll find the grass stinks just as much. And they who keep fool’s company themselves will soon be such.

“Sweet frankincense wrap in a leaf, the leaf will smell as sweet. So they themselves will soon grow wise, that sit at wise men’s feet.

“By this similitude the wise should his own profit know, Let him eschew bad company and with the righteous go: Heaven waits the righteous, but the bad are doomed to hell below.”

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Shyness is Coward; prompted.

Shyness is Coward; prompted.
In abhidhamma, minds and mental factor of sasaṅkhārika (prompted) mind is coward.

What is sasaṅkhārika (prompted)? (src)

  1. Sankhārika-
    This is purely a technical term used in a specific sense in the Abhidhamma. It is formed of 'sam', well and Ö 'kar', to do, to prepare, to accomplish. Literally, it means accomplishing, preparing, arranging.
    Like dhamma, sankhāra also is a multi-significant term. Its precise meaning is to be understood according to the context.
    When used as one of the five 'aggregates' (pañcakkhandha), it refers to all the mental states, except vedanā and saññā. In the paticca-samuppāda it is applied to all moral and immoral activities, good and bad thoughts. When sankhāra is used to signify that which is subject to change, sorrow, etc., it is invariably applied to all conditioned things.
    In this particular instance the term is used with 'sa' = co-; and a = un, Sa-sankhārika (lit., with effort) is that which is prompted, instigated, or induced by oneself or by another. 'Asankhārika' (lit., without effort) is that which is thus unaffected, but done spontaneously.
    If, for instance, one does an act, induced by another, or after much deliberation or premeditation on one's part, then it is sa-sankhārika. If, on the contrary, one does it instantly without any external or internal inducement, or any premeditation, then it is asankhārika.

How can the practitioner comprehends shyness?

the practitioner must comprehends below mind, it's mental factors, and the matters born of those mind&mental factors to comprehend shyness:

4 prompted attaching mind (src)

Attaching consciousness, prompted, accompanied by pleasure, connected with wrong view,
Attaching consciousness, prompted, accompanied by pleasure, disconnected with wrong view
Attaching consciousness, prompted, accompanied by indifference, connected with wrong view
Attaching consciousness, prompted, accompanied by indifference, disconnected with wrong view
Mental factors: Twenty-two factors enter into combination - namely, thirteen aññasamānas, and 3 greed mental factors, 2 boring mental factors, and 4 ignorant mental factors (13 + 3 + 2 + 4 = 22)

1 prompted rudeness mind (src)

Rudeness consciousness, prompted, accompanied by displeasure, connected with ill-will
Mental factors: Twenty-two factors enter into combination - namely, twelve aññasamānas, and 4 angry mental factors, 2 boring mental factors, and 4 ignorant mental factors (12 + 4 + 2 + 4 = 22)

12 prompted wholesome mind (src)

Beautiful consciousness, prompted, accompanied by pleasure, associated with knowledge. x3 (wholesome, resultant, kiriyā)
Beautiful consciousness, prompted, accompanied by pleasure, dissociated with knowledge, x3
Beautiful consciousness, prompted, accompanied by indifference, associated with knowledge,x3
Beautiful consciousness, prompted, accompanied by indifference, dissociated with knowledge.x3
Mental factors: thirty-six factors enter into combination - namely, thirteen aññasamānas, and twenty-five beautiful mental factors (13 + 25 = 38)

Monday, October 8, 2018

Anupubbīkathā is an over long sutta

Ugga-richman, lay, said in Sutta. Aṅ. (4): aṭṭhaka-nipātā:

With confident heart I paid homage to the Buddha. The Buddha taught me step by step (anupubbikakathā), with a talk on giving, ethical conduct, and heaven. He explained the drawbacks of sensual pleasures, so sordid and corrupt, and the benefit of renunciation. And when he knew that my mind was ready, pliable, rid of hindrances, joyful, and confident he explained the special teaching of the Buddhas: suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the path. Just as a clean cloth rid of stains would properly absorb dye, in that very seat the stainless, immaculate vision of the Dhamma arose in me: ‘Everything(suffering) which is arise by the origins(samudaya), has an end.’ I saw, attained, understood, and fathomed the Dhamma. I went beyond doubt, got rid of indecision, and became self-assured and independent of others regarding the Teacher’s instructions. Right there I went for refuge to the Buddha, his teaching, and the Saṅgha. And I undertook the five training rules with celibacy as the fifth. This is the second incredible and amazing quality found in me.

After listened anupubbīkathā, some listener can enlighten "dhammacakkhuṃ", i.e. from DN Sāmaññaphalasuttaṃ:

So King Ajatasattu, delighting and rejoicing in the Blessed One's words, rose from his seat, bowed down to him, and — after circumambulating him — left. Not long after King Ajatasattu had left, the Blessed One addressed the monks: "The king is wounded, monks. The king is incapacitated. Had he not killed his father — that righteous man, that righteous king — the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye would have arisen to him as he sat in this very seat."

You can search more result by yourself with word "dhammacakkhu", "anupubbika" and "anupuppīka".

There are many place like that in tipitaka, so Buddha exactly taught four noble truth to the lay. The required questions are:

  1. What is anupubbīkathā?
  2. Why Buddha often taught anupubbīkathā to a lay?
  3. Why the first saṅgāyanā monks have to separate anupubbīkathā as may partitions?
  4. Why some people think Buddha never taught meditation to a lay?

1. What is anupubbīkathā?

  1. Anupubbīkatha, in pāli canons, is the sequence teaching, story, or history. See, each searching results from tipitaka and atthakathā.

  2. Anupubbīkathā, in tipitaka context, the single time teaching of entire instructional sequence. It is the very long sutta which describing about buddhist practitioner's procedure, such as single time teaching of KN Khu Nidhikaṇḍaṃ (with some commentary) + AN Uposathasuttaṃ (with some commentary) + DN Sāmaññaphalasuttaṃ (with some commentary). You can see that is over long to orally recite.

2. Why Buddha often taught anupubbīkathā to lay?

Buddha taught anupubbikathā to everyone, not only lay, because every practitioner must practice step by step. No one can practice without sequence like a fog. See, MN Majjhimapaṇṇāsaka Kīṭāgirisutta Number 238.

However for a newbie lay who is genius, buddha taught him from the beginning step to the end in single time, such as single time teaching of KN Khu Nidhikaṇḍaṃ (with some commentary) + AN Uposathasuttaṃ (with some commentary) + DN Sāmaññaphalasuttaṃ (with some commentary).

You can see that is over long to orally recite.

That's why we can't find the single sutta of anupubbīkathā, in tipitaka context, or even in atthakathā as well. So, in atthakathā comment of anupubbīkathā:

Anupubbīkathā is sequence of teaching and commentary of dāna subjects then sīla subjects then heaven subjects then practitioner's procedure.

But the buddha&teacher taught a shorter and more complex sutta to the insider lay man&lay woman, upāsaka and upāsikā, because they have enough ability and knowledge to learn the higher level, e.g. AN Dānasutta. You can see that sutta is shorter and more complex, included only charity and the Path. It is anupubbīkathā, but it is not the meaning of "anupubbīkathā" word in the context like Sutta. Aṅ. (4): aṭṭhaka-nipātā.

3. Why the first saṅgāyanā monks have to separate anupubbīkathā as may partitions?

The first saṅgāyanā monks chose "anupubbikathā" words to avoid the over long of sutta. Because most of lay at that time don't have much knowledge for an enlightenment, buddha have to taught them very long sutta (maybe more that DN) and mix many contents to let them enlighten as sotāpanna, or trust to dhamma. So, if the first saṅgāyanā monks didn't separate it to be many smaller sutta, it will be over long and unable to orally reciting study.

The evidence from netti vicayahārasampāta:

  1. Herein, the Lord Buddha advises one of keen faculties with advice in brief; the Lord Buddha advises one of medium faculties with advice in brief and detail; the Lord Buddha advises one of blunt faculties with advice in detail.

4. Why some people think Buddha never taught meditation to a lay?

Because they are misunderstanding of anupubbikathā. And they don't know how to read teaching as four noble truth, because they never memorize netti, or never attained any professional knowledge, ñāṇa, from tipitaka-memorizer&jhānalābhī school, such as Pa-Auk.

Every noble one must enlightened four noble truth, but it is not every ordinary people can discover the noble truth from tipitaka. People who can understand the noble truth from tipitaka must can deconflict every uncleared word of tipitaka. This is unable for people who can't memorize tipitaka pali and netti, because it needs nirutti-paṭisambhidā to deconflict the whole tipitaka.

For the example from VN Mahāvagga by assachi arahanta to sāriputta, who enlightened as sotāpanna:

Ye dhammā hetupabhavā (dukkha) tesaṃ hetuṃ (samudaya) tathāgato āha
tesañca yo nirodho (nirodha&magga) evaṃvādī mahāsamaṇo.

‘Those things(suffering) which proceed from a cause, of these the Truthfinder has told the cause(origin), And that which is their stopping (cessation&path)— the great recluse has such a doctrine.’”

Or in Sāmaññaphalasuttaṃ, which king Ajātasattu almost enlightened as sotāpanna, it is included vipassanāñaṇa part (brief dukkha), pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa+cutūpapātañāṇa (extended dukkha), āsavakkhayañāṇa (samudaya+nirodha), and all practitioner's procedures in this sutta are magga.

All above is the example of how to read the noble truth in tipitaka.

Saturday, September 22, 2018

(Must read!) No lokuttara arūpa, Words' relation about lokiya&lokuttara jhāna

Therefore, lokuttara-appanā jhāna has not arūpa-state, lokuttara-nibbāna are over all aggregates, paṭicca-samuppāda cessation at all. That means there is no rūpa-object or arūpa-object for lokuttara-appanā consumer to think out of, no object for meditation, because the nibbāna-object, of lokuttara-appanā-jhāna, has already out of all aggregates.

The explanation of meditation's relative words:

Pāli words relation:
The paṭipanno bhāvanā samādhi by doing jhāna of samatha-ārammṇa. The comparative of bhāvanā's paricita called (nānā ārammanāni) khaṇiko samādhi, the upacāra of samādhi to samāpatti the ekagga-bhāva, and the upacāra of samādhi to samāpatti the ekagga-bhāva. (I used all of pāli word as nāma-sadda to avoid vibhatti's variation, but ). Ekaggatā is eka-bhāva of citta that has eka-rāsi of cetasikasampayutta and eka-ārammaṇa.

The translation of above pāli words relation: The practitioner meditates concentration-meditation by watching samatha-object. The comparision of meditation's evolution called various-object-momentary concentration, almost-consummated-one-pointedness concentration, and already-consummated-one-pointedness concentration. The one-pointedness is the state of mind that has only one same set of mental factors and only one-object continuously arising.

Lokiya = Under Aggregates' Dependency, paṭiccasamuppāda.
Lokuttara = Over Aggregates' Dependency. Lokuttara-aggregates are over present&future taṇhā aggregates, and future resultants. Lokuttara-nibbāna are over all aggregates.

By Abhi. Vibhaṅgo, Samāpatti (consummation) means bhāvanā (meditation). By Mettānisaṅsasutta, it's atthakathā, and Visuddhimagga, bhāvanā (meditation) means the meditation minds continuously arise without the barrier, hindrances.

So, lokuttara-samāpatti means the consummation of lokuttara-citta meditation. And lokiya-samāpatti means the consummation of lokiya-citta meditation.

What is appanā of one-pointedness?

The practitioner meditates the meditation to be proficient (samāpatti). The professor (samāpanno) of the meditation can think of the meditation object without bhavaṅga, five hindrances, and the letting go object. This is why the one-pointedness can be the state of mind that has only one same set of mental factors and only one-object continuously arising.

What is the difference of Lokiya Appanā VS Lokuttara Appanā?

Note: this is just the comparison. But in the real situation, virtual mind&concentration mind&insight mind switch each others to arise depend on the environment of the meditation. The purified virtual and purified concentration (visuddhi) arise automatically in the proper situation because to support the Insight meditation. This is the reason why taṇhā-carita practitioner should meditate concentration meditation specially, his concentration must ready to arise automatically in the environment that five hindrances, pariyuṭṭhāna-kilesa, can arise to hinder all meditation. The concentration mind must automatically arise before the hindrances arise to destroy the meditation.

Lokuttara Appanā
Practitioner is 4 Mahākusala/4 mahākiriyā mind with 33 mental factors.
Practitioner's object is Whole five aggregates in dependent origination cycle for the appearance of three normal characteristics.
The enemy is whole future 14 arise-able unwholesome (anusaya-kilesa) especially avijjā, lobha, dosa, sakkāya-diṭṭhi.
Enlightenment is 40 lokuttara appanā minds with 36 mental factors 40 which knowing only nibbāna.
Enlightenment's object is Nibbāna-object which is the opposite of whole five aggregates.

Lokiya Appanā
Practitioner is 4 Mahākusala/4 mahākiriyā mind with 35 mental factors.
Practitioner's object is the pair enemy-object of specific present unwholesome (pariyuṭṭhāna-kilesa), such as asubha-meditation is the couple of subha-kāmarāga hindrance.
The enemy is the whole present 14 arise-able unwholesome (pariyuṭṭhāna-kilesa) especially 5 hindrances.
Consummation is 27 lokiya appanā minds with 35 mental factors which knowing only that pair enemy-object of specific present unwholesome (pariyuṭṭhāna-kilesa).
Consummation's object is the pair enemy-object of specific present unwholesome (pariyuṭṭhāna-kilesa). Some of them are the realities, some of them are paññatti:
  1. Because five strings (paṇcakāmaguṇa) are variant reality at five senses, the rūpa-jhāna practitioner must think of the unlimited enemy imagination (paññaiti-object) of five string realities to avoid the five-string-reality thought. But rūpa-jhāna concentration base on the matter, the jhāna's element-pausing effort is not the cause of getting arūpa-object. The rūpa-jhāna consumer can get arūpa-object after his jhāna-power is strong enough.
  2. Because out of the paused jhāna-elements, the fifth rūpa-jhāna consumer's ability is ready to think without any matter, the fifth rūpa-jhāna consumer can meditate arūpa-jhāna from now on.
  3. Because every paññatti-object of rūpa-jhāna base on the collection of five strings (seven gocara-rūpa), this jhāna consumer still be easy to return to attach five strings again. So, the fifth rūpa-jhāna consumer must try to think out of every five strings by thinking of arūpa-jhāna object. Letting matter go because nothing of arūpa-jhāna object relating with matter.
Therefore, lokuttara-appanā jhāna has not arūpa-state, lokuttara-nibbāna are over all aggregates, paṭicca-samuppāda cessation at all. That means there is no rūpa-object or arūpa-object for lokuttara-appanā consumer to think out of, no object for meditation, because the nibbāna-object, of lokuttara-appanā-jhāna, has already out of all aggregates.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Buddhist Jhanas, how to describe them?

In addition to primary sources that discuss what this phenomena is, how would you describe what the Jhanas are to a person unfamiliar with any sort of meditation practice?

Jhanas are the practice to pause the present unwholesome mind. While jhāna mind are arising, there are no any wholesome mind can arise, whole hours or whole day. Jhāna is basis of insight meditation.

How do they differ across different sects/schools?

They are same in meditation. It just difference in a few detail.

How are they viewed sociologically or philosophically from OUTSIDE the lens of a practitioner or one who believes in the concept of enlightenment to begin with?

The jhāna practitioner looks very judicious, worshipful.

TL; DR seeking primary source information on Jhanas/Dhyanas. What is their history? How do they differ across schools/sects? How would an outsider or an academic understand them?

Saturday, September 15, 2018

Howto count down for enlightenment follow the end of mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta

Is it exaggeration, translation problem or understanding problem or it's true?

The translation is fine, but the reader must know the environment and situation of that sutta, before read it. If the reader read it without the pre-required knowledge, it is the reader's fail.

The explanation

In atthakathā of MN 10 wrote:

Why Buddha taught mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta to Kuru-people? Because they had enough ability to study the advance teaching. It's told that Kuru-people, such as bhikkhu, bhikkhunī, lay men, and lay women, always had the potential body and the potential mind because Kuru-country had the richness of temperature, etc. Their potential body and potential mind supported their wisdom power, so they can studied the advance teaching.

So, most Kuru-people were diṭṭhi-cārita, who have little dust in their eyes, according to netti desanāhāravibhaṅga.

The diṭṭhi-cārita people can attain jhāna easily. So they don't have to meditate jhāna because of their pure mind. They can enlighten at the listening moment. That's why in the end of mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta's atthakathā wrote:

30,000 people enlightened as arahanta at the end of mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta was taught.

therefore, the end of mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta wrote:

Let alone seven years, anyone who develops these four kinds of mindfulness meditation in this way for six years … five years … four years … three years … two years … one year … seven months … six months … five months … four months … three months … two months … one month … a fortnight … Let alone a fortnight, anyone who develops these four kinds of mindfulness meditation in this way for seven days can expect one of two results: enlightenment in the present life, or if there’s something left over, non-return.

But for taṇhā-carita people,who have much dust in their eyes, they have to meditate jhāna, first. After they attained jhāna, they can count down for enlightenment like what buddha taught in the end of mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta. Because jhāna can pause their five hindrances, then their "dust in eyes" state will be same little dust as diṭṭhi-carita and they are able to count down for enlightenment.

Friday, September 14, 2018

Lord Buddha and Chakravartin

Cakkavatti is a perfect king. Everybody, included Buddha, have been Cakkavatti before uncountable times.

Buddha doesn't has next life anymore, but Cakkavatti still reborn.